On April 12, 2005 legislation was passed that required the collection of taxes on all Indian sales of cigarettes, motor fuel and other products to non-Indian New Yorkers starting 3/1/06 (without exception) and was signed into law the next day. It was with both courage and conviction that Sheldon Silver and Joseph Bruno led the legislature to overturn Pataki's ill-advised veto, demonstrating their understanding of the urgency for stopping this outflow. The methodology of tax stamping of all cigarettes and the issuance of "exemption coupons" to tribal members was conceived 12 years ago and favorably ruled upon by the US Supreme Court.