Originally Posted By: Rich_Tallcot
Originally Posted By: bluezone
what examples exist today?
Timbo posted that link of opinions in the Tribal News thread to which I posted the REAL US apology and his standard accusations of questions not being answered is exactly what he does after refusing to make ANY stated fact regarding atrocities of today. Don't hold your breath waiting for an answer. Timbo will reply but not answer.

Are THESE the ones you mean?

Apology To The Native American Indians

By Dr. Mary Hamer, M.D

08 December, 2009

Dedicated to Onikwit, an Ojibwe Native American Indian from Walpole Island, Ontario, Canada

*Tecumseh (Shawnee) (1811): “Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narrangansett, the Mohican, the Pokanoket, and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and the oppression of the White Man”. (1)


*This essay is an Apology to the Native American Indians for 500+ years of domination, oppression & genocide by invading, occupying & colonizing people & governments – for a time span extending from Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492 up until the present day.

I, Mary Hamer, apologize on behalf of Christopher Columbus, the American & European governments, the European settlers & descendents, Christian churches, multiple U.S. Presidents, the U.S. Supreme Court of 1832, U.S. Generals, U.S. Governors, Captains, several Catholic Popes, The American Boarding School system for Native children, and other perpetrators & complicit bystanders for the genocide, the forced removal from ancient lands, the child kidnapping, & other forms of cruelty & hate committed against the Native American Indians for the last 500+ years.

*Christopher Columbus & President George Washington: I hold two people mainly responsible for the injustices inflicted upon the Native Americans: Christopher Columbus & President George Washington, the first European conqueror & the first U.S. President. Columbus & President Washington were the first role models to set the standards for moral codes of conduct towards the Native Peoples. Note: Regarding the butterfly theory: The long-term outcome of a dynamic system is dependent upon initial conditions. (2)

*I will take a legal approach focusing on the rule of law & a human rights perspective in this paper. I will show evidence for crimes against humanity supported by U.S. Presidents, a U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, several U.S. Governors, Generals & Captains including genocide & killing by violent death & killing by neglect/deprivation. I will show intent to kill Native American Indians & intent to kill the Native culture. I will show disregard for the rule of law by Presidents of the United States. I will show violations committed by U.S. government officials of the 1st & 5th Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. I will show evidence of racism in the U.S. Declaration of Independence, racist beliefs of our founding fathers & evidence of state sponsored apartheid against the Native Americans. Ultimately, the United States war of extermination of Native Americans served as a role model for Hitler’s racism, concentration camp strategy & genocide against the Jews.

*This is Not a paper about smallpox & other diseases that killed the Native peoples. This essay is about the intent to kill with premeditation, reckless endangerment with depraved indifference, cruelty & other harms committed by Columbus, the European settlers & descendants, the American & European governments, Christian churches, etc. to the Native American people. This paper is about 1st degree murder with malice aforethought as well as manslaughter & criminal negligence with reckless disregard for human life. Furthermore, these crimes against the Native American Indians did not stop with our forefathers; These crimes by the dominant society continue to the present day, including neglect & deprivation.

*I will present the facts of this case in an attempt to get close to the truth about what really happened to the indigenous people of America during this 500+ year tragedy.

*Apology: I offer the Native Americans the following: #1. I acknowledge the crimes committed against the Native Peoples by many guilty parties & #2. This paper is Not about prosecuting our Euro-American ancestors & current dominant societies for these crimes. Rather, my hope is to offer the Native people: Healing from their grief, pain & suffering -- in the form of this Apology.

*The 5 Main Sections of this paper are:

1. Crimes Against the Native Americans

2. The Domination/Superiority Ethic of the European/Americans toward the Native Peoples

& Failure of the Rule of Law.

3. Native American Trauma & Grief.

4. Native American Survival & Native Resurgence/Renewal/Revival in the 21st Century.

5. The Formal Apology to the Native American Indians.


*CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: Crimes against Humanity are defined by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Explanatory Memorandum as “Odious offenses … A serious attack on human dignity or grave humiliation or a degradation of … human beings. (Crimes against Humanity) are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy … or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government”. (3)

Crimes against humanity include: Murder, enslavement, forcible transfer of population, imprisonment, torture, rape, apartheid, etc. (4) I include examples of many of these crimes against the Native Americans in this essay.

Horton emphasizes the fact that for crimes against humanity, “The level of culpable responsibility can be as low as condoning or tolerating the (crimes)”. Horton also clarifies the fact that intent to commit a crime against humanity includes advertent recklessness. Horton also points out that crimes against humanity are either Systematic (including a political objective or ideology to destroy, persecute, or weaken a community) (repeated & continuous acts) (use of significant resources to carry out the acts) &/or Widespread (including large scale, frequent, collective). (5)


*October 12, 1492 was a tragic day for the Native American Indians. Peter Lindsay states: “To celebrate Columbus [Day] is to celebrate a legacy of genocide, slavery, rape & plunder”. (6)

For 500+ years the American Indians have suffered from brutal killings, immigrants’ diseases, racist government policies, broken treaties, removal from native lands to uninhabitable reservations with poor land for farming, child kidnapping to boarding schools, lack of education, poor health care, banning of their language & culture & religion, neglect by the dominant society, etc..

*Comparison of the Conquest of the Native Americans with the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb: Stannard in his book titled: American Holocaust, in the Prologue Section makes a comparison between #1. The first atomic bomb [at which time Oppenheimer quoted the Bhagavad-Gita “I am become death, The shatterer of worlds”] & #2. The invasion & conquest of the Americas & the Native American Indians. Stannard describes both events as “Orgies of human destructiveness”. (7)

*Hispaniola: Stannard also compares #1. The Hiroshima nuclear bombing which killed about 130,000 people to #2. The 8 Million Native American Indians killed on Hispaniola by one generation of European settlers. (8)– In other words: The European settlers killed more than 50 Hiroshima bombs worth of the Native American Indians of Hispaniola in one generation -- just in this one location of America.

*Total Numbers of Native Americans killed: Qualitative & Quantitative Statements: Stannard states: “The destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far & away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world”. (8) Ward Churchill states that the reduction of the North American Indian population from an estimated 12 million in 1500 to barely 237.000 in 1900 represents a “Vast genocide” (10) Wikipedia states low & high estimates of the numbers of Native American killed by genocide, diseases, famine, etc. range between 10 Million & 20 Million people. (11) White lists the Annihilation of the American Indians as the 7th Worst Thing People have Done to Each Other before the 20th Century. (12)

*Truth Commission: “A 2001 report by the Truth Commission into Genocide in Canada documents the responsibility of the Roman Catholic Church, etc. & the federal government in the deaths of more than 50,000 Native children … The report says church officials killed children by beating, poisoning, electric shock, starvation, prolonged exposure to sub-zero cold whole naked, medical experimentation including the removal of organs & radiation exposure”. (13)

*EXAMPLES OF GENOCIDE: Many examples of genocide committed against the Native American Indians are given throughout this paper including the Wounded Knee Massacre, the Sand Creek Massacre, the 1849 California Gold Rush, etc..

*”The Genocide against the American Natives was one of the most massive & longest lasting genocidal campaigns in human history … We believe that: Only the mass murder of European Jews by Christians from 306 to 1945 was of longer duration. Only the mass murder by the USSR government of about 41 Million of it’s citizens (1917-1987) & by the Chinese government of about 35 Million of it’s citizens (1949-1987) may have involved greater loss of life”. (14)

B. GENOCIDE: DEFINITION & Intent to Destroy

*The Convention of the Prevention & Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948 defines genocide as: “The intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethnical, racial or religious group” including: “Killing members of the group”, “Deliberately inflicting conditions calculated to physically destroy the group”, “Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group”, & “Forcefully transferring children of the group to another group”. (15)

*Intent: “Intent is a mental attitude … It cannot … be directly proved but must be inferred from surrounding facts & circumstances. Intent refers … to the state of mind with which an act is done or omitted … It differs from motive which is what prompts a person to act or fail to act. (16)

*Lemkin clarifies genocide as follows: “Genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation … It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of actions aim(ed) at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups … The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political & social institutions of culture, language, … religion … & the destruction of the personal security, liberty” etc.. (17)

*Lemkin: “Lemkin … never believed that the term [genocide] should refer only to carnage & atrocities of the magnitude by the Nazis against the Jews. He wanted it to encompass all attempts to destroy cultural or ethnic identities”. (18)

*Stanton’s 8 Stages of Genocide: The first stage of Stanton’s Stages of Genocide is the Us –vs- Them Thinking phase. Other stages of genocide include: Dehumanization & Hate Speech, the Separation of Oppressed People, Mass Killings, & Denial. (19)

*Motives for Genocide: Rummel describes some of the motives for genocide including: “To destroy a group that is perceived as a threat to the ruling power”, “Destruction of those who are hated … or envied”, “To eliminate … perceived alien beliefs”. Other motives for genocide include: “Attacks on people considered inferior” and “Control over resources”. (20) [www.enotes.com: Genocide & Crimes against Humanity].

*EXAMPLES of Genocide: In the 1800’a “The miners embarked on a program of systemic genocide against the Indians of California, [including] Sunday ‘Shoots’ in which bands of whites would attack Indian villages killing as many people as they could”. (21)

*Other Features of Genocide:

Dehumanization & Hate Speech: Please refer to the Hate Speech Section.

Separation of Oppressed People: An example of the separation of the Native Americans occurred in through forced relocation to “Reservations” e.g. The Trail of Tears [discussed in the Indian Removal Act Section].

*Denial: ”The dominant [U.S.] culture has denied & concealed the genocidal actions committed against American Indians in the name of Western cultural progress”. (22)

*Indirect Genocide: Lee Wha Rang states: “Buffaloes-- the main food source of the [Plains] Indians – were wiped out by the military in order to starve out the Indians”. (23)

“The U.S. government was guilty of acts of Omission’ … failing to prevent acts that have genocidal effects … turning a blind eye …”. “The buffalo were killed in such great quantities … the plains Indians experienced famine or were forced to relocate to reservations”. “The failure of the U.S. government to protect Native Americans … left Native Americans with few options & contributed to their destruction”. (24)

*Genocide based on Racism: ”Eugenics asserts that (e.g.) Indian people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race of people”. (25)


*Definition: Cultural Genocide is the “Deliberate destruction of the cultural heritage of a people”. (26)

*Cultural Genocide: Grinde states: “As the genocidal policies to eliminate Native American populations in North America began to lose momentum at the end of the (1800’s) (the) Native American population in the United States had been reduced to 500,000 by 1890, American Indians faced a new colonial policy that aimed to obliterate American Indian culture through education”. (27)

*Cultural Genocide: Churchill in his book: Kill the Indian, Save the Man “Tells of the devastating results of a government sponsored (school) program whose stated goal was to eradicate Native North American culture”. (28)

*Cultural Genocide: William Burroughs said: “The way to kill a man or a nation is to cut off his dreams, the way the whites are taking care of the Indians: killing their dreams…”. (29)

*The Silent Cultural Genocide of Shame: The goal of silent genocide is: “To cause people to become ashamed of their cultures”. Silent genocide is: “The destruction of a people by destroying their pride & knowledge of their cultural heritage”. “Few other (people) than the people being destroyed know what is happening”. (30) Noel discusses an example of cultural shame forced upon the Native American children by the American educational system. (31)

*Depraved Indifference & Reckless Disregard for Native American cultural disintegration: I would add

another cause of the cultural genocide of the Native Americans: That is the depraved indifference & reckless disregard in the dominant society that perhaps doesn’t plan a course of action for the destruction of the Native Peoples – But rather passively lets it happen by turning a blind eye to a developing problem such as poverty or letting a possibility event just happen such as alcoholism.


*Genocide: President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela states: “Christopher Columbus was the spearhead of the biggest invasion & genocide ever seen in the history of humanity”. Chavez describes Columbus’ genocide as “Worse than Hitler”. (32)

*Conquest: Christopher Columbus, after discovering the Americas in 1492, “Got the impression that he could conquer the (Native) people easily”. Columbus wrote in his journal: “I could conquer the whole of them…& govern them as I please”. “Cooperation was ensured by a punishment system. Any minor offense by an Arawak would result in a Spaniard cutting off his ears or nose”. (33)

*Gruesome Killing: Lopez states: “One day … The Spanish dismembered, beheaded, or raped 3,000 (Native) people. … The Spanish cut off the legs of children, poured people full of boiling soap, made bets as to who they could cut in half with one sweep of a sword, they used nursing infants for dog food”. (34)

*Massacre & Extermination: Lindsay describes Columbus’ actions towards the Arawak Indians in the late 1400’s/early 1500’s including: slavery, murder, torture, working slaves to death, sexual slavery, knifing Indians, they hanged & burned Indians alive, they sent hunting dogs to rip Indians apart. etc..Lindsay states: “Columbus & his followers massacred an entire people … Not one Arawak Indian was left alive on the island [of Hispaniola] by 1555”. (35)

*Witness of Crimes Against Humanity: Bartolome de Las Casas: Bartolome de Las Casas was a priest who witnessed & documented Spanish acts of cruelty, torture & killing that the Spanish inflicted upon the Native American Indians in the early 1500’s. Here are some excerpts from de Las Casas’ writing: “During the 40 years of the Spanish slaughterous Dictatorship in these regions (of the Carribean/Indies) over 12 Million have undeservedly perished”. “The Spaniards by their barbarous & wretched actions have absolutely depopulated … (many places) on the main land … (which) lays desolute & ruined”. “The ultimate reason for the Spaniards’ (extermination) of (these) Peoples was gold”. Spanish acts of torture & killing include: ripping up their bellies, tearing them alive in pieces, decapitation, bashing babies brains out against rocks, roasting (Natives) alive on iron grids until they died, releasing fierce hunting dogs to kill them. (36)

*Gold Genocide: In 1511, Father Antonio de Montesinos preached a fiery sermon that implicated the (Spanish) colonists in the genocide of the Native peoples”. (37) Antonia de Montesinos asked: “Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel & horrible servitude? On what authority have you waged such detestable wars against these people who dealt quietly & peacefully on their own lands? Wars in which you have destroyed an infinite number of them by homicides & slaughters never heard of before. Why do you keep them so oppressed & exhausted…you kill them in order to extract & acquire gold”. (38)

*Torture: Churchill states that the Arawak/Taino Indians were: “’Punished’ by having their hands cut off … & left to bleed to death”. He lists other forms of torture & cruelty inflicted upon the Taino Indians including being hanged, roasted on spits, burned alive, children were hacked to pieces & used as dog feed, (the perpetrators) slit a man in two or cut his head off & opened up his bowels, (the offenders) dashed the heads of babes against rocks. (39)

*Spanish Killing Dogs: “Spaniards in the 15th, 16th & 17th Centuries … (used) dogs (as) hounds of hell in the New World”. “The Spanish sent war & hunting dogs to the New World”. “Christopher Columbus used wolfhounds & mastiffs to hunt down & kill rebellious (Native) slaves on Hispaniola”. (40)

*Court of Spain Inquiry into Christopher Columbus’ leadership in the New World: Christopher Columbus’ governorship in the New World was investigated by the Spanish Court circa 1500. “According to testimony of 23 witnesses during his trial, Columbus regularly used barbaric acts of torture to govern Hispaniola”. (41)

*Columbus: Poor Role Model for New World Explorers & Bad Precedent: Lindsay states: ”Columbus set the model for other Europeans who sought to dominate the ‘New World’. The same method of terrifying, enslaving & slaughtering Indians was employed by all explorers – portrayed as heroes in U.S. history books”. Other explorers employed similar aggressive conquest methods such as a scorched-earth campaign, looting & extermination. (42)

*Opposition to Columbus Day: Columbus Day “Has been rejected by some people who view it as a celebration of conquest & genocide”. (43) President “Chavez signed a decree changing the name of Venezuela’s October 12th Columbus Day to the Day of Indigenous Resistance”. Chavez stated: “There’s nothing to celebrate. What (Columbus) did here was a massacre of the indigenous people”. (44)

E. WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE: Intent to Kill & Suppression of Religious Freedom

*Deliberate Massacre: During the Wounded Knee Massacre about 300 men, women & children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed by U.S. military forces. General Nelson Miles “Promoted the conclusion that Wounded Knee Was a deliberate massacre rather than a tragedy caused by poor decisions”. (45)

*Testimonial: “An Indian named American Horse gave this narrative of the slaughter at Wounded Knee”: “Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant: The child not knowing that it’s mother was dead was still nursing & that was a very sad sight”. (46)

*Ghost Dancing & It’s Role in the Wounded Knee Massacre: ”The most famous example of suppressing Native American religion came with the outlawing of the Ghost Dance” (47) “Ghost Dancing was a spiritual ceremony however some U.S. Indian agents … misinterpreted it as a war dance. … “Fear that the Ghost Dance philosophy signaled an Indian uprising, many agents outlawed it”. (48) “In 1890, the United States government broke a Lakota treaty by adjusting the Great Sioux Reservation of South Dakota into smaller reservations … to accommodate white homesteaders”. Due to no bison & a poor growing season & harvest, the Sioux were starving. “Performances of the Ghost Dance ritual ensued, frightening” the BIA agents. “Sitting Bull was arrested … for failing to stop … the Ghost Dance”. The Wounded Knee conflict & massacre resulted from these events. (49)


*Initially reported as a victory, controversy soon arose about a possible massacre at Sand Creek. Investigations followed, including “Colonel Chivington … deliberately planned & executed a foul & dastardly massacre … (He) Murdered, in cold blood, the unsuspecting men, women & children at Sand Creek”. (50)

*The following are excerpts of U.S. Congressional Testimony from 1865 regarding the Sand Creek Massacre: Note: Questions are asked by Mr. Gooch, the Answers are given by Mr. Smith (an Indian agent) Q: “Do you know whether or not Colonel Chivington knew the friendly character of these Indians before he made the attack upon (the Indians)?” A: “It is my opinion that he did”.

Q: “Were the women & children slaughtered indiscriminately…”? A: “Indiscriminately”. Q: “”Were there any acts of barbarity perpetrated…?” A: “Yes, sir. I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before”. (“Scapled, their brains knocked out”). Q: “By whom were they mutilated?” A: “By the United States troops”. Q: “Did you see it done?” A: “Yes, sir. I saw them fall”. (51)

G. PEQUOT MASSACRE: Intent to Kill

*In 1635 in Connecticut, Captain John Mason “Ordered his militiamen to set fire to (a) [Pequot] town burning alive as many as 900 women, children & old men” … Plymouth Governor Wm Bradford described the scene: “The victory seemed a sweet sacrifice” & he spoke of “The praise thereof to God”. (52)


*Tall Oak, a Narrangansett states: “Our land has become concentration camps or whatever you call them – Reservations”. (53)

*European Settler sponsored Concentration Camp: In 1675 Native Americans were rounded up & taken to Deer Island. Deer Island was a concentration camp for the Indians. “The lack of food, shelter & exposure to the elements caused death to many”. (54)

*Trail of Tears: President directed Concentration Camp: ”The Indian territory (in Oklahoma) became a vast, poverty-stricken concentration camp for dispossessed Native Americans, administered by a federal bureaucracy…created by (President Andrew) Jackson’s directive”. (55)

*General Scott “Round(ed) up about 13.000 Cherokees into concentration camps at the U.S. Indian Agency near Cleveland, Tennessee, before being sent to the West”. (56)

*POW’s: Chiricahua Apache POW’s: About 400 non-combatant Chiricahua Apaches from Arizona were held as exiled prisoners of war (POW) by the U.S. government for 27 years from 1886 to 1914; The first few years were spent in Florida & Alabama where many fell ill or died of malaria or tuberculosis; The other 20 years were spent at the Fort Sill, Oklahoma POW camp. General Miles is described as having “Lied to the nation … when he advised the army’s commander Sheridan that those (Apache) who remained behind (after Geronimo’s acts of resistance to the U.S. government) gave aid & comfort to the enemy” These Native peoples endured displacement from their homeland, multiple moves, separation from family members, long-term imprisonment in a POW camp, diseases, starvation, economic loss from the U.S. government forced sale of cattle & a high death rate. (57)

*U.S. Government Pike Island Internment Camp: “During the general time of the Dakota War of 1862 more that 1,600 Dakota women, children & men were held in an internment camp on Pike Island … Minnesota” (58)

*HITLER: Toland in his book Adolph Hitler states: “Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much …to …United States history. He admired the camps for … Indians in the wild west; and often praised … the efficiency of America’s extermination – by starvation and uneven combat – of the red savages”. (59)

*RESERVATIONS: Poverty & Unemployment: The Barriers to Economic Development on Indian Reservations includes: Reservations are poor in natural resources, entrepreneurial skills & experience are scarce, reservations are disadvantaged by their distance to markets & high transportation costs. (60) Two large reservations in the United States are: the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, New Mexico (& Utah) and the Pine Ridge Lakota Reservation in South Dakota; In 1998, “Unemployment on the Navajo Reservation was (about) 43%” & “Unemployment on the Pine Ridge Reservation … was 73%” – Compared to significantly lower unemployment rates for the corresponding referenced states. In 1998, the “Per capita income for the Navajo Reservation was $5,759” – Compared to significantly higher incomes for the corresponding referenced states. (61)



*One of the criteria of genocide is: ”Forcefully transferring children of the (oppressed) group to another group”. The evidence below shows that this criteria for genocide is met.

The United States had a policy of Americanizing & assimilating Native American children into the European American culture through Boarding Schools.

*Native Boarding School “Carlisle founder Capt. Richard C. Pratt espoused an approach to educating Native Americans that aimed to “Kill the Indian & save the man”& “To civilize(s) the savages”. (62)

*Boarding School Brainwashing Techniques: Boarding schools were established far away from reservations so that students would have no contact with their families. Students were forbidden to speak their Native language. Students were forbidden to practice their religion. [They] were forced to memorize Bible verses & the Lord’s Prayer. Students were taught that the Indian way of life was savage & inferior to the white way. (63) Also, students were shamed & humiliated for showing homesickness for their families. Students were dragged from their homes without the knowledge of their parents. Students were called “inmates”. (64)

*Child Slavery: “Over 4.000 Native American children were sold – prices ranged from $60 for a boy to $200 for a girl”. (65)

*Native American Children Sexual Abuse: “Rampant sexual abuse of reservation schools continued until the end of the 1980’s”. “Acting BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) chief William Ragsdale admitted that the agency had not been sufficiently responsive to allegations of sexual abuse & he apologized to the Hopi tribe & others whose children BIA employees had abused”. (66)

*Rape of Native Children: “In several boarding schools in the United States & Canada, it is extimated that 60 to 70% of all students attending the boarding schools were beaten or raped” (67)

*Pedophilia & Native American Children: The 2001 Truth Commission of Canada says that “Clergy, police & business & government officials rented out (Native) children from schools to pedophile rings”. (68)

*Forced Sterilization of Native American Girls: The article Soul Wound by Andrea Smith describes the “Forced sterilization of Native girls”. (69)


Intent to Harm, Depraved Indifference & Involuntary Manslaughter

*Depraved Indifference: Depraved indifference to human life refers to “A person’s state of mind in recklessly engaging in conduct which creates a grave risk of death”. (70) Robert Schmidt states: “Europeans were guilty of directly killing or enslaving Indians … and they were guilty of … depraved indifference toward the deaths they caused by infectious diseases”. (71) Schmidt asks about the European response to the dying Native Americans: “How many doctors did the (Europeans) send or (how many) hospitals did they build when they saw the Indians dying (from infectious diseases)?” – Or did the Europeans do nothing in an act of depraved indifference to the dying Indians? Schmidt also asks: “If you forcibly remove someone from his house & he dies of pneumonia in the cold, are you guilty? Yes. I believe the crime would be involuntary manslaughter…”. (72)– Or more specifically such an act would be an example of criminally negligent manslaughter.

“Criminally negligent manslaughter (a form of involuntary manslaughter) occurs when death results from a high degree of negligence or recklessness”. “An omission to act or a failure to perform a duty constitutes criminally negligent manslaughter”. (73)

Involuntary manslaughter is defined as & includes the following criteria: The act of unlawfully killing another human being” – in the absence of intent, premeditation or malice. (74) Another definition of Involuntary manslaughter includes: An act of “Reckless disregard for human life”, “The person knew that such conduct was a threat to the lives of others” & the act results in the death of a person. (75)

*Intent to Harm: ”Sir Jeffrey Amherst of the British forces wrote that “Smallpox be sent among the disaffected tribes”. Bouquet replied: “I will try to [contaminate] them … with some blankets”. Amherst responded: “You will do well to [infect] the Indians by means of blankets as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race”. (76)

*Intent to Harm: During the Indian Removal Act “The Cherokee were given used blankets from a hospital in Tennessee where an epidemic of small pox had broken out”. (77)

K. BISON KILLING & HUMAN GENOCIDE: Destruction of the Essential Foundations of Life

U.N. criteria for genocide: Deliberately imposing conditions that cause the destruction of a group.

I will show that this U.N. criteria for genocide is met with the U.S. sanctioning of the extermination of the Plains Indians’ main food source: the Bison or buffalo.

*U.S. “General Sherman urged settlers to ‘Kill until the buffalo is exterminated as it is the only way to allow civilization to advance’”. (Then) “The Indians were declared ‘pacified’”. “With … indiscriminate slaughter prevailing, starvation spread across the First Nations of the prairies”. (78)

* Blackfoot Indians: In “The winter of 1883-84 became known as ‘Starvation Winter’ because no government supplies came in (as guaranteed by the Lame Bull Treaty), there were no buffalo & 600 Blackfoot died of hunger”. (79)

*The Dakota War of 1862 resulted from many factors including the bison killing & Native starvation. (80)

*The Wikipedia topic: Environmental Disasters lists “The reduction in the number of American Bison” as one of the major environmental disasters in the world. (81)


*I define the neologism: Radiocide to describe the criminal act of willfully, recklessly with depraved indifference or negligently causing harm to people, animals & the Earth as a result of nuclear technology activities such as: uranium mining & milling, nuclear radioactive waste, radiation accidents, etc. -- & including failure to follow standards of care regarding nuclear safety & clean-up.

*Environmental Racism as defined by the former Reverend Dr. Benjamin Chavis is: “Racial discrimination in the enforcement of environmental rules & regulations, the … targeting of minority communities for the siting of polluting industries, or the exclusion of minority groups from public & private boards, commissions & regulatory bodies”. “Environmental justice is the movement to reverse environmental racism”. (82)

*Examples: Utah: The “Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians Reservation in Utah is targeted for a big nuclear waste dump. Private Fuel Storage (PFS) a limited liability corporation representing eight powerful nuclear utilities, wants to … store 40,000 tons of commercial high-level radioactive waste … next to … (this) reservation”. (83)

*Nevada: “Because of U.S. nuclear testing in Nevada, the Western Shoshone Nation is already the most bombed nation on earth. They suffer from widespread cancer, leukemia, and other diseases as a result of fallout from more than 1.000 atomic explosions on their territory”. (84)

*New Mexico: The Consolidated Indigenous Shadow Report of 2007 states: “Over 1,000 (federal government & corporate) abandoned uranium mines & mills on the Navajo Nation … pose a continuing health hazard to traditional Navajos”. Also, the CISR states: “The Navajo Nation … was polluted in 1979 when an accident at the United Nuclear Corporation’s Church Rock Mill near Gallup, New Mexico released 94 million gallons of radioactive waste into the Puerco River”. … Despite the fact that the spill is considered the second worst nuclear accident in U.S. history after the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in Pennsylvania & the designation as a superfund site by the EPA, the area remains un-reclaimed almost 30 years after the spill”.(85)

*Brugge et al state: “We examined 2 large unintended acute releases of uranium – at Kerr McGee Sequoyah Fuels Corporation in Oklahoma & United Nuclear Corporation’s Church Rock uranium mill in New Mexico, which were incidents with comparable magnitude to the Three Mile Island release” (86)


*The miners of the 1849 California Gold Rush killed or displaced Native Peoples in order to mine the land for gold. The miners then hydraulically blasted mountains, pulverized landscapes, & dredged rivers looking for gold. The miners used large amounts of mercury to extract the gold. Overall, the miners committed genocide of the Native Americans & they caused significant environmental destruction including a mercury poisoned landscape.

*”California’s first Governor bluntly advocated Indian genocide by declaring: ‘A war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races until the Indian race becomes extinct’”. (87)

*Here are some historical notes regarding the 1849 California Gold Rush taken from Gold, Greed & Genocide:

*In 1848 “President Polk proclaimed (gold) wealth in the west”.

*The “Peaceful (Native) peoples were bewildered when the settlers arrived & set about tearing up the river beds & hillsides for mining”.

*In 1849 a San Francisco paper wrote: “It will be absolutely necessary to exterminate the savages”. In 1851 the same newspaper declared that the Native Peoples: “Must fade before the Saxon race”. (88)

*In 1853 the Yreka Herald called on the government to help the citizens “Carry on a war of extermination until the last of the redskins of these tribes has been killed”. (89)

*In 1860 “The Alto California newspaper reported a massacre conducted by Captain Jarboe among the Achomawi”(tribe). The attack on the Native Peoples included “Blowing out their brains”, “Splitting their heads open”, “Heads smashed”, etc. “The victorious captain sent a boastful report for his military exploits to Washington asking for reimbursement for his military successes. They were paid”. (90) “California’s Governor wrote a letter to Captian Jarboe congratulating him” (for the campaign against the Native People). (91) Senator Henry Wilson described Captain Jarboe’s military actions: “Deliberate, cowardly, brutal massacres of defenseless (people). (Captian Jarboe) killed nearly 300 of these poor people”. (92)

*Overall, the Native American population (in California) prior to the white man ranged from about 300,000 to 700,000. The population dropped to 150,000 in 1845 “A tragic consequence of the mission system & diseases … The miners & ranchers of the Gold Rush decimated the rest”. By 1870 the number of Native Americans plummeted to 31,000 according to the California census. (93)

*”Today the descendants of the (California) tribes that survived the holocaust of the (1849) Gold Rush live on toxic lands”. (94)

*Old California Money: The revcom.us website states: “The wealth of California’s elite is dripping with (gold rush) blood”. (95)

*Overall, “The (1849) Gold Rush is one of oppression, discrimination & genocide”. (96) -- & Ecocide.

*Note: The 150th Anniversary of the 1849 California Gold Rush was advertised as “It’s a good time to plan a trip to the state’s gold-rush country, one of the most romantic & colorful destinations in America”. (97) My question is: What is so romantic & colorful about U.S. government sponsored genocide?


State Sponsored 1st Degree Murder

*”In 1856 Governor Isaac Stevens put a bounty on the head of Indians from Eastern Washington, $20 for ordinary Indians & $80 for a ‘chief’”. (98) ”In 1851 & 1852 “California paid out $1 million … to militias that hunted down & slaughtered Indians. In 1857 the state issued $400,000 in bonds to pay for anti-Indian militias”. (99)


*Christopher Columbus “Profited from the labor of Native slaves, whom he forced to mine gold; he also attempted to sell some slaves to Spain”. Columbus refused to call his acts “Slavery” – Rather he called his acts “Forced labor”. “Indians were forced to mine for gold, raise Spanish food, provide sexual companionship”, etc. At one point in time “Columbus brought back some 500 ‘specimens’ to work as slaves in Spain”; He & the crew used another 500 slaves in the Americas. (100)

*”During the 17th century, Indian slavery, the enslavement of Native Americans by European colonists, was common. Many of these Native slaves were exported to off-shore colonies, especially the Caribbean”. (101)

*”The Puritans of New England … had a persistent practice of enslaving Native Americans”. (102)

*”European enslavement of Native Americans existed with the Spanish … & (it) was practiced by the English”. (103)


*Hate Speech: “Indians were treated with disgust & disdain by the whites of their region. South Dakota … was littered with signs reading ‘No Dogs & No Indians allowed’”. (104) Another example of hate speech directed at the Native American Indians is the phrase: “The only good Indian is a dead Indian”. Captain Pratt’s motto (circa 1875), (of the U.S. Cavalry & the founder of the Carlisle School for Indian Students), was: “Kill the Indian, Save the man” – A reference made to kill the Indian culture, but to assimilate the man. (105) General Sheridan, a U.S. Union officer in 1869 stated to a Comanche chief: “I only good Indians I ever saw were dead” – Later this remark became: The only good Indian is a dead Indian. (106) Examples of racist words used to refer to Native Americans includes: Savages & Red Man.

*Entertainment Industry: John Wayne of movie fame told interviewer Richard Warren Lewis: “I don’t feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from (the Native Americans) … Our so called stealing of this country was just a matter of survival”. (107) Baum, the author of The Wizard of Oz, wrote an editorial in the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer in 1890: “The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Why not annihilation? … We cannot honestly regret their extermination”. (108)

*Name Calling: Name calling is a form of negative communication & more specifically it is an example of stereotyping. Name calling creates a Me –vs- You universe in which I define myself as superior, good & right & you as inferior, bad & wrong. Name calling is a tool used by dominators to gain power over others.


*Schmidt states: “Cortes began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy – to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed”. (109)



*Domination, Racism & Oppression are common features of human society throughout history including the relationship between conquering forces & the Native American Indians.

*Domination: A “Domination system (is): “A social system characterized by hierarchical power, economic inequality, oppressive politics, patriarchy…standing armies, and war. Violence (is) the preferred means for adjudicating disputes & getting and holding power”. (110)

*Superiority: Baggs states: “The white Judeo-Christian attitude toward American Indians has been one of superiority”. (111)

*Racism: “The belief that one race is superior to all other” (inferior races) (112) The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Article #9 states that: “All propaganda & organizations based on ideas or theories of the superiority of one race or group of persons of one color or ethnic origin with a view to justifying or promoting racial discrimination in any form shall be severely condemned”. (113)

*Oppression: Middleton-Moz explains “The mentality of the oppressor is that ‘I own you.’ I have the right to strip you of your beliefs, values & self-respect in the process of attaining my own goals. I have the right to destroy you if you refuse to cooperate in my procurement of power”. (114)


I will show evidence for an Ego/Domination/Superiority ethic that defines the relationship between conquering forces such as Christopher Columbus, European settlers & the U.S. government & the oppressed Native Americans.

*MANIFEST DESTINY, a 19th century concept, is the belief that America’s mission [ordained by God] is to expand it’s power in the world – For Native Americans it meant Indian Removal. (115) Factoidz.com references Wikipedia’s definition of Manifest Destiny & states: The Manifest Destiny has been used to justify the genocide of the Native American(s)”. (116)

*Chosen Race Myth: Michael Fitzgerald discusses the Manifest Destiny & “The conceit that we have a special mission from God”. (117)

*European Mission: “Europeans believed themselves on a (Native American) civilizing or dominating mission helped by their gun technology”. (118)

*Obstacles to Capitalism: “Tribal occupation … in the U.S. has been viewed as an obstacle to profitable capitalist activity. The remedy has been the systematic removal of American Indian people through forced assimilation, involuntary relocation, the destruction of traditional tribal cultures & extermination”. (119)

*DISCOVERY DOCTRINE: The Discovery Doctrine was “U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall’s explanation of the way in which colonial powers laid claim to newly discovered lands during the Age of Discovery. Under it, title to newly discovered lands lay with the government whose subjects discovered new territory. The doctrine has been primarily used to support decisions invalidating or ignoring aboriginal possession of land in favor of colonial or post-colonial governments”. (120) “This legal principle was created & justified by religious & ethnocentric ideas of European & Caucasian superiority over other cultures, religions & races of the world. The Doctrine (was executed) … without the knowledge nor the consent of the indigenous peoples. American leaders (including George Washington & Thomas Jefferson) (used) this legal principle to justify making claims of property rights & political dominance over the Indian Nations. … The Doctrine of Discovery in the 15th century … helped develop the Manifest Destiny in the 19th century. … Religion was a significant aspect of the Doctrine of Discovery & Manifest Destiny … Non-Christian people were not deemed to have the same rights to land, sovereignty & self-determination as Christians”. (121)

*APARTHEID: The crime of apartheid as defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (RSICC) states it is the “Systematic oppression & domination by one racial group over any other group”. (122) *Apartheid means “Separateness” in Afrikaans. (123)

*Beckett states: “It (is) surprising that we are not more aware of the parallel between (the) United States Native American policy & (the) South African native policy called apartheid”. (124)

*WHITE MAN’S GOVERNMENT & UNCONSTITUTIONAL ACTS: Senator Davis of Kentucky at the Congressional debates in 1866 regarding the Civil Rights Act & the Fourteenth Amendment states: “None of the inferior races if any kind were intended to be embraced … by this work (Declaration of Independence)”. “My position is that this is a white man’s Government … (that does) not include Indians”. Beck states in the abstract to his research of this topic: “Arguments will verify that acts which imposed citizenship on all Indians, contrary to the Fourteenth Amendment prohibition against tribal Indian citizenship, are unconstitutional. Beck also states: “This essay substantiates that ‘Indians not taxed’ was defined to mean that tribal Indians are not taxable as long as they remain subject to the jurisdiction of their tribe”. (125)

*”The federal government created Indian reservations … to separate people by race”. (126)

*The International Convention of the Suppression & Punishment of The Crime of Apartheid (ICSPCA) includes in the definition of the crime of apartheid: “Deliberate imposition of living conditions calculated to cause it’s … physical destruction”, “Legislative measures calculated to prevent a racial group from participating in the political, social, economic & cultural life of the country”, “Any measures … designed to divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate reserves & ghettos for the members of a racial group”. (127)

*The U.S. policy of Native American Indian “Reservations”, the Trail of Tears, the U.S. destruction of the Buffalo resulting in the Plains Indians demise & the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock case are all examples of U.S. oppression against & domination of the Native American Indians – i.e. apartheid. Examples are already cited & to follow.





*The DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE states: “All men are created equal” & yet this declaration also talks about “Merciless Indian savages”. This document criticized King George for tyranny, oppression & cruelty. (128) & Yet, America has turned around and treated the Native Americans with the same tyranny, oppression & cruelty.

*U.S. Policy of Indian Extermination: Robert Schmidt states: “One could easily call the incessant Indian Wars [about 1776-1890] that raged across the continent an official policy of extermination” (of the Native American Indians). Schmidt also claims regarding U.S. policies to relocate Indians to barren lands at gunpoint: “In legal circles, gross negligence or depraved indifference to a probable outcome is equivalent to guilt”. (129)

*Jayaprakash compares the more human rights oriented Northwest Ordinance of 1787 & the Royal Proclamation of 1763 to the less human rights oriented U.S. Constitution of 1787; Jayaprakash states that the U.S. Constitution says “Nothing” to protect the rights of American Indians & nothing “To prevent any wrongs being done to them”. (The Native People) “Were left to the mercy of the settlers”. (130)

*GEORGE WASHINGTON: in 1779 instructed Major General John Sullivan to attack the Iroquois: “Lay waste all the settlements … that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed”. Washington urged the General “(Not to) listen to any overture of peace before the total ruin of their settlements”. Washington compared Indians to wolves & “Beasts of prey”. (131) “Washington was dedicated to the theft of as much Native land as possible – especially in Ohio where his family’s Ohio Company stood to make an immeasurable fortune … & he was not the least bit hesitant to order genocidal attacks to promote his purpose”. (132) Johansen states: “Washington is no hero. … The term ‘Holocaust’ in Iroquois is taken to mean the series of raids by General Sullivan … under Washington’s orders during 1779 (including the destruction of roughly sixty Iroquoian towns). ‘Town Destroyer’ is a name still commonly used for Washington, father of one country, scorcher of another”. (133)

*”Thomas Jefferson (President:1801-1809), (The principle author of the Declaration of Independence) instructed his War Department that any Indians who resisted American expansion into their lands, must be met with ‘the Hatchet’”. “We will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated”. Jefferson said that the American government had no other choice than “To pursue (the Indians) to extermination”. (134)

*PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON: Trail of Tears, Racism & Discovery Doctrine:

*President Andrew Jackson Defies U.S. Supreme Court: In 1832 the U.S. Supreme Court “Ruled in favor of the Cherokee Nation”. Specifically, the U.S. Supreme Court in 1832 ruled: “That the state of Georgia had no right to expel the Cherokee Indians from their land”. (135)

President Andrew Jackson “Openly defied” the Supreme Court decision & he continued to carry out the Indian Removal Act. (136)

*Marshall Supreme Court: In the Section titled: The Marshall Trilogy: The Origins of Racist Constitutional Doctrine, several racist issues are addressed as they relate to the conquest of Native American land: ”Discrimination against Indigenous Peoples can be traced directly back to … Constitutional Doctrines developed by the Marshall Supreme Court” (Marshall Trilogy) (137)

*Marshall Supreme Court of 1823 & Christian Conquest: ”The entire body of (U.S.) federal Indian law & policy has it’s foundation in a racist antiquated principle – The Doctrine of Discovery & conquest … In Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) Justice Marshall declared that the discovery & conquest of the Americas by Christian European nations divested Indigenous Peoples of their rights”. The U.S. government “Perpetuates a … false & discriminatory idea of European superiority over Indigenous Peoples”. (138)

*President John Quincy Adams’ Secretary of State Henry Clay (1825-1829) declared: “The Indians disappearance from the human family will be no great loss to the world. I do not think them, as a race, worth preserving”. (139)

*“In 1851 California Governor Peter Burnett promised a “War of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct”. (140)

*Governor Alexander Ramsey declared in 1862: “The Sioux Indians must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the state” “His plan was further implemented when bounties were placed on the scalps of Dakota people which reached $200”. (141)

*PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN: (1861-1865): In the aftermath of the Dakota War of 1862, “President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution by hanging of 38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankota Minnesota”—Referred to as the largest mass execution in U.S. history. (142) DiLorenzo points out regarding this mass execution: “The guilt of the executed could not be positively determined beyond reasonable doubt”. (143) DiLorenzo

*Lincoln’s General John Pope said: “It is my purpose to utterly exterminate the Sioux. They are to be treated as maniacs or wild beasts”. (144)

*”In 1867 General William Tecumseh Sherman said: ‘We must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination’”. (145) “Sherman’s philosophy was that since the inferior Indians refused to step aside so superior American culture could create success & progress, they had to be driven out of the way”. (146) “Sherman expressed his deep disappointment over the fact that were it not for ‘civilian interference’ his army would have ‘gotten rid of them all’ & killed every last Indian in the U.S.”. (147) Sherman described a ‘Final Solution’ to the Indian problem: “Sherman ordered his subordinates to kill the Indians without restraint to achieve what he called: ‘The Final Solution’”. (148) DiLorenzo quotes Sherman regarding the war of extermination of the American Indians: “I am charmed at the handsome conduct of our troops in the field”. (149)

*General Sheridan stated regarding noncombatants: “If a village is attacked & (Indian) women & children killed, the responsibility is not with the soldiers but with the people whose crimes necessitated the attack”. (150)

*Theodore Roosevelt (President 1901-1909) said: “The Sand Creek Massacre was ‘As righteous & beneficial a deed as ever took place on the frontier’”. (151)

*The Consolidated Indigenous Shadow Report of 2007 states in the Conclusion Section: “The United States perpetuates a constitutional & legal system that legitimized discriminatory practices towards Indigenous Peoples by failing to protect their rights to property, religious freedom & practice, despoiling spiritually significant areas, denying Indigenous Peoples’ control & management of resources & self-determination”. (152)


*Catholic Church Papal Bull Documents & Christopher Columbus: “Genocide & conquest committed by Columbus … against the … Native people of the Caribbean were sanctioned by the … (Papal Bull) documents of the Catholic Church”. *”Christopher Columbus’ … act of ‘possession (of New World lands) was based on a religious (Christian) doctrine … the Doctrine of Discovery”. (153)

*Papal Bull of 1455 & Xenophobia: In 1455 the Papal Bull Romanus Pontifex declared “War against non-Christians throughout the world & specifically sanction(ed) & promot(ed) the conquest & colonization & exploitation of non-Christian nations” … including putting the “enemies” of Christ into “perpetual slavery”& sanctioned the taking of “all their possessions & property” – Non-Christians were considered less than human. (154)

*Indigenous delegates have drafted a Declaration of Vision regarding the revocation of the Papal Bull Inter Caetera which reads, in part: “We call upon the … Roman Catholic hierarchy to persuade Pope John II to formally revoke the Inter Caetera Bull of 1493 …That papal document called for our Nations & Peoples to be subjugated so the Christian Empire…would be propagated. The U.S. Supreme Court ruling Johnson vs. McIntosh (1823) adopted the same principle of subjugation expressed in the Inter Caetera Bull. This Papal Bull has been & continues to be devastating to our religions, our cultures & to the survival of our populations”. (155)

*The 1493 Papal Bull Inter Caetera urg(ed) that the “Barbarous Nations of the New World “Be overthrown & brought to the faith. (156)

*”Outraged Indian leaders in Brazil said … they were offended by Pope Benedict’s … comments that the Roman Catholic Church had ‘Purified’ them”; The Pope also said that “At the time of the conquest, the Native Americans were ‘Silently Longing’ for Christianity”. “Millions of tribal Indians are believed to have died as a result of European colonization backed by the Church since Columbus landed in the America in 1942 through slaughter, disease or enslavement”. (157) Question: Is the Pope either denying the Catholic Church’s role in the genocide of Native Americans or is the Pope saying that the Native Peoples “longed” for killing, rape, torture, slavery, etc. so that they could be “purified” by death, mutilation & oppression?

*Jessica Lee’s review of Newcomb’s book: Pagans in the Promised Land states regarding Newcomb’s analysis of the 1832 Supreme Court ruling of Johnson v. M’Intosh: “The high court ruled that Native Americans did not have ownership rights to their ancestral lands… The court opinion detailed this rationale in it’s ‘Discovery Doctrine’” i.e. “The U.S. government … acquired land (obtained by others by) ‘Dominion’ … based on the belief that God wanted ‘Barbarous nations to be overthrown & to become subservient to the ‘Cross & Crown’” -- A violation of the separation of church & state. (158) Note: “The separation of church & state is a … principle derived from the First amendment to the United States Constitution”. (159) Therefore, if the U.S. Supreme Court makes a decision based on a Christian doctrine, then that act would be a violation of this 1st Amendment principle for 2 reasons: the implied preference of Christianity over other religions & the failure to abide by the separation of church & state rule.

*The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution: “Prohibits the establishment of a national religion by the Congress or the preference of one religion over another, non-religion over religion or religion over non-religion”. (160)

*Reverend Solomon Stoddard proposed to the Massachusetts Governor that the colonists be given the financial wherewithal to purchase and train large packs of dogs ‘To hunt Indians as they do bears’”. (161)



*Broken Treaties: Baggs states: “United States military records show a minimum of 1,470 official incidents of Army action against Indians from 1776 to 1907 …Treaties were made, regularly broken, frequently altered or … completely ignored. The federal & state governments often re-acquired land designated for reservations if it was found that the land held significant economic value”. (162)

*Deception: Lee Wha Rang describes: “The U.S. practice of using treaties to deceive the enemy … Indian chiefs were enticed to sign ‘Indian treaties’ that were supposed to protect their land & people. … The ‘Treaties’ were easy, cheap means of disarming & evicting [the Indians] from their ancestral lands”. (163)

*Metaphysical Question: Lorenzen asks: “What happens when we break the treaties in our … lives? The reality of being violated, broken hearts, the loss of trust, [etc.] are among the many common ailments of the soul & psyche we have to deal with when … the promises we make to each other … are broken”. (164)

*DAKOTA WAR OF 1862: No Bison, Hunger, Conflict over Food, War, Executions & Internment: In “The late 1850’s, treaty violations by the United States (& other factors such as the mass killing of bison by the U.S. government) caused … hunger & hardship among the Dakota”. Trader Andrew Myrick said that if the Sioux were hungry, they could eat grass or their own dung. (165) Due to starvation, some Dakota went on a hunting expedition for food & violence with white settlers broke out. The Dakota War of 1862 resulted from this con
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